Managing Users on the Cluster¶
In order for someone to gain access to a cluster, s/he must first be given a user account. The cluster administrator can manage user accounts with the same tools that are available with most Linux distributions. User access to cluster resources can also be controlled by the cluster administrator.
This chapter discusses the tools and commands for managing user accounts and controlling access to cluster resources.
Managing User Accounts¶
Adding New Users¶
useradd command enables you to add a new user to the system.
This command takes a single argument, which is the new user's login
[root@cluster ~] # useradd <username>
This command also creates a home directory named
After you add the user, give them a default password using the
passwd command so that they will be able to log in. This command
takes a single argument, which is the username:
[root@cluster ~] # passwd <username>
It is good practice to give each user their own unique home directory.
To remove a user from your cluster, use the
userdel command. This
command takes a single argument, which is the username:
[root@cluster ~] # userdel <username>
userdel does not remove the user's home directory. To
remove the home directory, include the
-r option in the command:
[root@cluster ~] # userdel -r <username>
userdel command will never remove any files that are not in
the user's home directory. To fully remove all of a user's files,
remove the user's mail file from
/var/spool/mail/, as well as
any files the user may have in
/var/tmp/, and any
other directories to which the user had write permissions.
Managing User Groups¶
In addition to user accounts, you can also create user groups. Groups can be very powerful, as they allow you to assign resources to an arbitrary set of users. Groups are typically used for file permissions. However, you can also utilize groups to assign nodes to a specific set of users, thereby limiting which users have access to certain nodes. This section covers creating and modifying groups.
Creating a Group¶
Before you can add users to a group, you must first create the group.
Groups can be created with the
groupadd command. This command takes
a single argument, which represents the name of the group:
[root@cluster ~] # groupadd <groupname>
Adding a User to a Group¶
usermod command To add a user to a group. This command
requires you to list all the groups the user should be a member of. To
avoid accidentally removing any of the user's groups, first use the
groups command to get a list of the user's current groups. The
following example shows how to find the groups for a user named Smith:
[root@cluster ~] # groups smith smith : smith src
After getting a list of the user's current groups, you can then add them to new groups, for example:
[root@cluster ~] # usermod -G smith,src,<newgroup> smith
Removing a Group¶
To remove a group, run the
groupdel command with the groupname as an
[root@cluster ~] # groupdel <groupname>
Controlling Access to Cluster Resources¶
By default, anyone who can log into the master node of the cluster can send a job to any compute node. This is not always desirable. You can use node ownership and mode to restrict the use of each node to a certain user or group, including restricting compute node access to the master node.
What Node Ownership Means¶
Each node (including the master node) has user, group and mode bits assigned to it; these indicate who is allowed to run jobs on that node. The user and group bits can be set to any user ID or group ID on your system. In addition, the use of a node can be unrestricted by setting the user and group to "root".
BProc unified process space, the node permissions "root" and
"any" are equivalent. Node user access follows the normal Linux
convention, i.e., the most restrictive access rule is the one used. Some
user "root", group "test", mode 101 (u=1, g=0, o=1) — Users in the group "test" will not be able to access the node.
user "tester", group "root", and mode 011 (u=0, g=1, o=1) — The user "tester" will not be able to access the node.
user "tester", group "test", and mode 110 (u=0, g=1, o=1) — The user "tester" and users in the group "test" are the only non-root users able to access the node.
In Linux systems, "other" is defined as anyone not listed in the user or group.
Checking Node Ownership¶
Display the current node access state by running the
[root@cluster ~] # bpstat -M Node(s) Status Mode User Group 16-31 down ---------- root root -1 up ---x--x--x root root 0-15 up ---x--x--x root root
The "User" column shows the user for each node and the "Group" column shows the group for each node. This display shows a cluster with default access permissions.
Setting Node Ownership¶
You can set node ownership with the
bpctl command. Use the
option to specify which node to change. Use either the
-u option to
change the user,
-g option to change the group, or
-m to change
the mode. The only bit utilized for the mode is the execute bit.
Following are some examples.
The following sets the user for node 5 to root:
[root@cluster ~] # bpctl -S 5 -u root
The following sets all the compute nodes to be in the group beousers:
[root@cluster ~] # bpctl -S all -g beousers
The following allows only the group beousers to access the compute nodes:
[root@cluster ~] # bpctl -S all -m 010 -g beousers
The following disallows non-root users to execute on the master:
[root@cluster ~] # bpctl -M -m 0110
[root@cluster ~] # bpctl -M -m 0110 [root@cluster ~] # bpctl -S 0-3 -g physics [root@cluster ~] # bpstat -M Node(s) Status Mode User Group 16-31 down ---------- root root -1 up ---x--x--- root root 0-3 up ---x--x--x root physics 4-15 up ---x--x--x root root
See the Reference Guide for additional details on
bpctl does not permanently change the node ownership settings.
Whenever the master node reboots or
service restart beowulf reboots
the cluster, the node ownership settings revert to the default of full,
unrestricted access, or to the optional override settings specified by the
nodeaccess directive(s) in the
/etc/beowulf/config file. To make
permanent changes to these settings, you must edit this file. For example,
to make the above setting persistent, add the nodeaccess entries:
nodeaccess -M -m 0110 nodeaccess -S 0-3 -g physics
The Reference Guide and
man beowulf-config provides details for the